每个人都会扼杀他所爱的人

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每个人都会扼杀他所爱的人-柳叶刀Lancet最近七月一期发表了一篇文章,The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review,全球亲密伴侣凶杀案的负担。  总起来就一个意思,每个人都会扼杀他所爱的人。

背景

凶杀案是导致全球过早死亡案例发生的一个重要原因,但罕有证据能够证实亲密伴侣凶杀案所造成的重大影响,而且由于缺乏受害者—罪犯关系的相关信息,也给寻找证据带来了困难。 这项研究旨在估算亲密伴侣凶杀案的全球性和地区性发生率。

方法

我们对五个数据库(Medline、全球健康 [Global Health]、Embase [医学文摘资料库]、社会政策 [Social Policy] 和科学网 [Web of Science])进行了系统性检索,并获得了 2167 篇摘要。经双盲筛选后,我们纳入了 118 篇完整文献,其中共涉及 1122 个亲密伴侣凶杀案发生率的估算值。 我们纳入的所有研究均报告了某一国家、省份或城镇中被亲密伴侣杀害的女性或男性的数量或比例,其中对亲密伴侣采用了宽泛的定义。 此外,一项涉及 169 个国家的官方来源调查提供了额外的 53 个估算值。 我们使用质量评估决策算法选择了单位为每国家-年的估算值。 我们根据整个国家和地区的情况分别计算了女性和男性亲密伴侣凶杀案的中位发生率。

结果

我们获得了 66 个国家的数据。 总体而言,有 13·5% (IQR 9·2—18·2) 的凶杀案为亲密伴侣所为,该比例在女性凶杀案中比在男性凶杀案中高出六倍(38·6%,30·8—45·3 和 6·3%,3·1—6·3)。 在高收入国家(所有,14·9%,9·2—18·2;女性凶杀案,41·2%, 30·8—44·5)和东南亚 (18·8%, 11·3—18·8; 58·8%, 58·8—58·8),所有(男性和女性)和女性亲密伴侣凶杀案的中位百分比最高。 对未知的受害者—罪犯关系进行校正后,该发生率普遍增加,这表明上述结果较为保守。

结果解读

至少七分之一的全球凶杀案和超过三分之一的女性凶杀案为亲密伴侣所为。 此类暴力通常是由于长期的虐待行为所导致的。 降低凶杀案风险的策略包括:增加投资,预防亲密伴侣之前的暴力行为、评估不同医护点存在的风险、帮助遭受亲密伴侣暴力的女性,并控制具有暴力史者的枪支拥有权。 改进国家级数据采集与监控系统也必不可少,这是因为在不同地区,数据的可用性和质量可能存在巨大差异。

BACKGROUND:

Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide.

METHODS:

A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately.

FINDINGS:

Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative.

INTERPRETATION:

At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse. Strategies to reduce homicide risk include increased investment in intimate partner violence prevention, risk assessments at different points of care, support for women experiencing intimate partner violence, and control of gun ownership for people with a history of violence. Improvements in country-level data collection and monitoring systems are also essential, because data availability and quality varied strongly across regions.

FUNDING:

WHO, Sigrid Rausing Trust, and the UK Economic and Social Research Council.

 

文献地址:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+global+prevalence+of+intimate+partner+homicide%3A+a+systematic+review

PMID: 23791474

 

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