母亲的基因可能影响孩子的寿命

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母亲的基因可能影响孩子的寿命。最新的研究表明,母亲的基因可能影响孩子的寿命长短。不过本研究是在小鼠身上进行的,人是否是这样还未知。

影响寿命的主要因素是老化过程中线粒体的各种改变的积累。

线粒体有自己的DNA。线粒体的DNA比细胞核内的DNA更容易改变,而线粒体DNA的改变是老化的主影响因素。

在小鼠身上的实验表明,线粒体老化不仅DNA操作的累积的影响,还受从母亲遗传的线粒体DNA的影响。研究表明如果从母亲遗传得到的线粒体DNA有突变,就可能衰老的更快。

本研究的发现可以更好的认识和了解老化过程,证明了线粒体在老化过程中所起的重要作用,以及减少线粒体的突变和重要性。研究还为将来通过干预线粒体功能而增加寿命提供了理论基础。

但是专家们也指出到动物实验的结果未必就适用于人类。因此母亲线粒体DNA对孩子寿命的影响到底有多大,还需进一步研究。

Abstract

Ageing is due to an accumulation of various types of damage1, 2, and mitochondrial dysfunction has long been considered to be important in this process3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. There is substantial sequence variation in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)9, and the high mutation rate is counteracted by different mechanisms that decrease maternal transmission of mutated mtDNA10, 11, 12, 13. Despite these protective mechanisms14, it is becoming increasingly clear that low-level mtDNA heteroplasmy is quite common and often inherited in humans15, 16. We designed a series of mouse mutants to investigate the extent to which inherited mtDNA mutations can contribute to ageing. Here we report that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can induce mild ageing phenotypes in mice with a wild-type nuclear genome. Furthermore, maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations lead to anticipation of reduced fertility in mice that are heterozygous for the mtDNA mutator allele (PolgAwt/mut) and aggravate premature ageing phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice (PolgAmut/mut). Unexpectedly, a combination of maternally transmitted and somatic mtDNA mutations also leads to stochastic brain malformations. Our findings show that a pre-existing mutation load will not only allow somatic mutagenesis to create a critically high total mtDNA mutation load sooner but will also increase clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations17 to enhance the normally occurring mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in ageing tissues18, 19. Our findings suggest that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations may have a similar role in aggravating aspects of normal human ageing.

 

参考文献:Jaime M. Ross et. al. Germline mitochondrial DNA mutations aggravate ageing and can impair brain development. Nature (2013)

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